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COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION INR   0 INR  0
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COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION

The Business of Commercial Construction Commercial construction is the business of building and selling or leasing manufacturing or assembly plants, medical centers, retail shopping centers, and standard space for offices. The business varies primarily in the size and scale of the operations. Typically, the commercial builder either contracts with a company or organization to build the facility or builds the facility on speculation that it can be leased or sold at a later time. The Commercial Construction Environment Most commercial construction comes about as a result of a bidding process. An architect's design is let out for bid, competitors submit bids, and the one with the best cost and specification match wins the bid. Usually, but not always, the construction site is already known and secured. Commercial building is driven both by business cycles and population growth. As more people move into a given area demand increases for existing work space. Schools, municipal buildings, retail stores, and offices become more fully occupied driving builders to build office and retail space to meet percieved demand. As the business cycle ramps up, new construction is ordered to provide space for workers and more frequent shoppers. In today's commercial construction environment, many builders now specialize in a single commercial market. Some specialize in high-rize buildings, other hone their expertise in providing heavy infrastructure facilities like water treatment plants or dams. Still others may specialize in tilt slab construction. A certain amount of competitive advantage accues to those who have significant experience in a they type of commercial construction they are bidding on. In many areas this specialization can break down even futher with major parts of a construction project such as perimeter concrete fences being built by a company that specializes in building only this type of fence. Builder's can smooth out inevitable work flow peaks and valleys by taking on projects to refit office space or other commercial buildings. Overlaying all of this are building codes established by towns, cities, and counties. Typically building inspections are fully paid for by the builder in permit fees that can run 3 to 4 percent of the price of the building. Inspectors seem to have thier own timetables on getting out to approve sites so success often depends on building good relationshiops with the inspectors or developing political influence. Keys to Success Successful builders are those who can keep a steady stream of projects under construction. This allows for more predictability in the quality and availability of the needed labor. It also means that discounts can be obtained from suppliers who learn that they can count on a certain volume of business. Similarly, banks and lending institutions enjoy working with builders who are predictable in making their payments. As a result they are more willing to extend credit when it is needed. And successful builders build delays into their plans and schedules. They don't know if sickness or the weather will cause the delays but for sure something almost always does. Those who do it well also manage the expectations of their custoemrs. Setting unrealistic expectations for completion can result in some very unpleasant consequences for buyer and builder alike. Quality is another key to success that should not be overlooked. Those who do it right the first time don't have to take money out of their profits to make things right. Maybe, in the final analysis, the commercial builder must become the great communicator: needing to keep everyone up-to-date on the project status including, workers, sub-contractors, customers, banks, and building inspectors.

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RESTRUCTURE OF OLD BUILDING INR   0 INR  0
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RESTRUCTURE OF OLD BUILDING

Reconstruction is a term in architectural conservation whose precise meaning varies, depending on the context in which they are used. More broadly, such as under the ICOMOS Burra Charter, "reconstruction" means returning a damaged building to a known earlier state by the introduction of new materials.[1] It is related to the architectural concepts of restoration (repairing existing building fabric) and preservation (the prevention of further decay), wherein the most extensive form of reconstruction is creating a replica of a destroyed building. More narrowly, such as under the Secretary of Interior's Standards in the United States, "reconstruction" is "the act or process of depicting, by means of new construction, the form, features, and detailing of a non-surviving site, landscape, building, structure, or object for the purpose of replicating its appearance at a specific period of time and in its historic location."[2] Contents 1 Reconstruction of buildings and structures 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Reconstruction of buildings and structures Robert Venturi's "ghost structure" reconstruction at Franklin Court of Benjamin Franklin's house, as part of Independence National Historical Park, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The design concept, since used at other sites, resulted from insufficient information to accurately reconstruct the house, and it was instead decided merely suggested it.[3] There may be several reasons for the construction of a building or creation of a replica building or structure. Sometimes, it is the result of destruction of landmark monuments that is experienced as traumatic by inhabitants of the region, such as through war, planning errors and politically motivated destruction, other times, merely the result of natural disaster. Examples include Yongdingmen (former Peking city gate temporarily sacrificed to traffic considerations), St Mark's Campanile in Venice (collapsed in 1902), House of the Blackheads (Riga), Iberian Gate and Chapel and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow (destroyed by order of Joseph Stalin), Dresden Frauenkirche and Semperoper in Dresden (bombed at the end of World War II). A specifically well-known example is the rebuilding of the historic city center of Warsaw after 1945. The Old Town and the Royal Castle had been badly damaged already at the outset of World War II. It was systematically razed to the ground by German troops after the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. The reconstruction of Warsaw's historic center (e.g., St. John's Cathedral, St. Kazimierz Church, Ujazdów Castle) and, e.g., the replica of the Stari Most built in Mostar (Bosnia Herzegovina) have met with official approval by UNESCO. Other times, reconstructions are made in the case of sites where the historic and cultural significance was not recognized until long after its destruction, common in North America, especially with respect to its early history. Examples include the reconstruction of Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia, the rebuilding of numerous structures in Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, and Fort William Historical Park in Ontario, Canada. Critics of reconstructed and replica buildings see them as a falsification of history and as the creation of a kind of "architectural ersatz". Most guidelines for reconstruction (such as the Burra and Venice charters) suggest that new construction be distinguishable from the original, and that reconstruction not be carried out if insufficient information exists to accurately re-create the building's former state

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